From 'digital' to 'smart': upgrading the city
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In this paper we seek to reflect on the way in which 'digital cities' later re-emerge as 'smart cities' (both in terms of the approaches and also the actual cities) and what lessons can be learned about the role of ICTs in how they shape urban space. We will focus on looking at how the lack of understanding of the city as a 'place' is often a common factor in the lack of longevity in 'digital city' initiatives and discuss the corresponding implications for the emergence of 'smart cities'. We draw on a study of the city of Bristol, UK in order to look at the variety of initiatives that took Bristol from a 1990's digital city to the current 'smart' projects. We conclude by reflecting on what can be learnt from the lessons of the failed Digital City projects of 1990's and discuss the role that placemaking could play in the development of socially and spatially sustainable smart cities.
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