Identification of deliberate catheter motion at the left atrial posterior wall during pulmonary vein isolation: Validity of respiratory motion adjustment
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BACKGROUND: During automated radiofrequency (RF) annotation-guided pulmonary vein isolation (PVI), respiratory motion adjustment (RMA) is recommended, yet lacks in vivo validation. METHODS: Following contact force (CF) PVI (continuous RF, 30 W) using general anesthesia and automated RF annotation-guidance (VISITAG™: force-over-time 100% minimum 1 g; 2 mm position stability; ACCURESP™ RMA "off") in 25 patients, we retrospectively examined RMA settings "on" versus "off" at the left atrial posterior wall (LAPW). RESULTS: Respiratory motion detection occurred in eight, permitting offline retrospective comparison of RMA settings. Significant differences in LAPW RF auto-annotation occurred according to RMA setting, with curves displaying catheter position, CF and impedance data indicating "best-fit" for catheter motion detection using RMA "off." Comparing RMA "on" versus "off," respectively: total annotated sites, 82 versus 98; median RF duration per-site, 13.3 versus 10.6 s (p < 0.0001); median force time integral 177 versus 130 gs (p = 0.0002); mean inter-tag distance (ITD), 6.0 versus 4.8 mm (p = 0.002). Considering LAPW annotated site 1-to-2 transitions resulting from deliberate catheter movement, 3 concurrent with inadvertent 0 g CF demonstrated < 0.6 s difference in RF duration. However, 13 deliberate catheter movements during constant tissue contact (ITD range: 2.1-7.0 mm) demonstrated (mean) site-1 RF duration difference 3.7 s (range: -1.3 to 11.3 s): considering multiple measures of catheter position instability, the appropriate indication of deliberate catheter motion occurred with RMA "off" in all. CONCLUSIONS: ACCURESP™ respiratory motion adjustment importantly delayed the identification of deliberate and clinically relevant catheter motion during LAPW RF delivery, rendering auto-annotated RF display invalid. Operators seeking greater accuracy during auto-annotated RF delivery should avoid RMA use.
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