Meta-analysis of Androgen Insensitivity in Preoperative Hormone Therapy in Hypospadias.
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OBJECTIVE: To define androgen insensitivity prevalence in hypospadias patients treated with preoperative hormone therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched databases that were published in English and Chinese up to September 10, 2014 for our studies. Eligibility criteria were pre-established. Title, abstract, and full-text screenings were conducted by 2 authors independently. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Quality assessment of included studies was completed. Meta-analysis was done when appropriate using R, version 3.1.1 for Windows. Heterogeneity among individual studies was tested using the Cochran chi-square Q test and quantified by calculating the I(2) index. RESULTS: Thirteen of 1278 publications met inclusion criteria and were incorporated into this study. Of 306 patients with preoperative hormone therapy, 25 displayed androgen resistance. Meta-analysis demonstrated that the random-effects model generates a pooled estimate of 7.14% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.16%-15.31%), whereas the fixed-effect model provides an estimate of 14.61% (95% CI, 10.00%-20.85%). Heterogeneity among included studies was found above medium (I(2) = 67.1% [95% CI, 41.2%-81.6%]; P = .0003]. After exclusion of the heterogeneity, both random-effects and fixed-effect models produce a consistent pooled estimate of 6.95% (95% CI, 0%-47.8%). CONCLUSION: We have defined that the prevalence of androgen resistance in hypospadias is 7.14% (95% CI, 3.16%-15.31%). To distinguish isolated hypospadias from patients with androgen insensitivity syndrome, we recommend that androgen-resistant patients should be specifically targeted by molecularly focused diagnosis. Management strategies should include identification of mutations in the androgen receptor gene, timely surgery to repair hypospadias, and long-term follow-up of sexual function and fertility later in life.
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