Uncoupling protein-2 attenuates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in INS-1E insulinoma cells by lowering mitochondrial reactive oxygen species.
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Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) by pancreatic β cells is regulated by mitochondrial uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), but opposing phenotypes, GSIS improvement and impairment, have been reported for different Ucp2-ablated mouse models. By measuring mitochondrial bioenergetics in attached INS-1E insulinoma cells with and without UCP2, we show that UCP2 contributes to proton leak and attenuates glucose-induced rises in both respiratory activity and the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation. Strikingly, the GSIS improvement seen upon UCP2 knockdown in INS-1E cells is annulled completely by the cell-permeative antioxidant MnTMPyP. Consistent with this observation, UCP2 lowers mitochondrial reactive oxygen species at high glucose levels. We conclude that UCP2 plays both regulatory and protective roles in β cells by acutely lowering GSIS and chronically preventing oxidative stress. Our findings thus provide a mechanistic explanation for the apparently discrepant findings in the field.
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