Acute bioenergetic insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscle cells: ATP-demand-provoked glycolysis contributes to stimulation of ATP supply
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Skeletal muscle takes up glucose in an insulin-sensitive manner and is thus important for the maintenance of blood glucose homeostasis. Insulin resistance during development of type 2 diabetes is associated with decreased ATP synthesis, but the causality of this association is controversial. In this paper, we report real-time oxygen uptake and medium acidification data that we use to quantify acute insulin effects on intracellular ATP supply and ATP demand in rat and human skeletal muscle cells. We demonstrate that insulin increases overall cellular ATP supply by stimulating the rate of glycolytic ATP synthesis. Stimulation is immediate and achieved directly by increased glycolytic capacity, and indirectly by elevated ATP demand from protein synthesis. Raised glycolytic capacity does not result from augmented glucose uptake. Notably, insulin-sensitive glucose uptake is increased synergistically by nitrite. While nitrite has a similar stimulatory effect on glycolytic ATP supply as insulin, it does not amplify insulin stimulation. These data highlight the multifarious nature of acute bioenergetic insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscle cells, and are thus important for the interpretation of changes in energy metabolism that are seen in insulin-resistant muscle.
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