On Coding and Detection Techniques for Two-Dimensional Magnetic Recording
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The areal density growth of magnetic recording systems is fast approaching the superparamagnetic limit for conventional magnetic disks. This is due to the increasing demand for high data storage capacity. Two-dimensional Magnetic Recording (TDMR) is a new technology aimed at increasing the areal density of magnetic recording systems beyond the limit of current disk technology using conventional disk media. However, it relies on advanced coding and signal processing techniques to achieve areal density gains. Current state of the art signal processing for TDMR channel employed iterative decoding with Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, coupled with 2D equalisers and full 2D Maximum Likelihood (ML) detectors. The shortcoming of these algorithms is their computation complexity especially with regards to the ML detectors which is exponential with respect to the number of bits involved. Therefore, robust low-complexity coding, equalisation and detection algorithms are crucial for successful future deployment of the TDMR scheme. This present work is aimed at finding efficient and low-complexity coding, equalisation, detection and decoding techniques for improving the performance of TDMR channel and magnetic recording channel in general. A forward error correction (FEC) scheme of two concatenated single parity bit systems along track separated by an interleaver has been presented for channel with perpendicular magnetic recording (PMR) media. Joint detection decoding algorithm using constrained MAP detector for simultaneous detection and decoding of data with single parity bit system has been proposed. It is shown that using the proposed FEC scheme with the constrained MAP detector/decoder can achieve a gain of up to 3dB over un-coded MAP decoder for 1D interference channel. A further gain of 1.5 dB was achieved by concatenating two interleavers with extra parity bit when data density along track is high. The use of single bit parity code as a run length limited code as well as an error correction code is demonstrated to simplify detection complexity and improve system performance. A low-complexity 2D detection technique for TDMR system with Shingled Magnetic Recording Media (SMR) was also proposed. The technique used the concatenation of 2D MAP detector along track with regular MAP detector across tracks to reduce the complexity order of using full 2D detection from exponential to linear. It is shown that using this technique can improve track density with limited complexity. Two methods of FEC for TDMR channel using two single parity bit systems have been discussed. One using two concatenated single parity bits along track only, separated by a Dithered Relative Prime (DRP) interleaver and the other use the single parity bits in both directions without the DRP interleaver. Consequent to the FEC coding on the channel, a 2D multi-track MAP joint detector decoder has been proposed for simultaneous detection and decoding of the coded single parity bit data. A gain of up to 5dB was achieved using the FEC scheme with the 2D multi-track MAP joint detector decoder over un-coded 2D multi-track MAP detector in TDMR channel. In a situation with high density in both directions, it is shown that FEC coding using two concatenated single parity bits along track separated by DRP interleaver performed better than when the single parity bits are used in both directions without the DRP interleaver.