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dc.contributor.authorFisher, A
dc.contributor.authorKara, D
dc.date.accessioned2016-10-21T14:43:31Z
dc.date.available2016-10-21T14:43:31Z
dc.date.issued2016-09-07
dc.identifier.issn0003-2670
dc.identifier.issn1873-4324
dc.identifier.otherC
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10026.1/6587
dc.descriptionpublisher: Elsevier articletitle: Determination of rare earth elements in natural water samples – A review of sample separation, preconcentration and direct methodologies journaltitle: Analytica Chimica Acta articlelink: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2016.05.052 content_type: article copyright: © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
dc.description.abstract

This review discusses and compares the methods given for the determination of rare earth elements (REE) in natural water samples, including sea, river, lake, tap, ground and waste waters as well as Antarctic ice. Since REE are at very low concentrations in natural waters, numerous different preconcentration methods have been proposed to enable their measurement. These include liquid liquid extraction, dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction and solidified floating drop micro-extraction. In addition to liquid-liquid extraction methods, solid phase extraction using commercial resins, resins made in-house, silica-based exchange materials and other solid media is also discussed. These and other techniques such as precipitation/co-precipitation and flotation are compared in terms of speed, preconcentration factors achieved, precision, accuracy and limits of detection (LOD). Some papers have discussed the direct determination of REE in these sample types. Some have used specialised sample introduction systems such as ultrasonic nebulization whereas others have used a standard sample introduction system coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. These direct methods have also been discussed and compared.

dc.format.extent1-29
dc.format.mediumPrint-Electronic
dc.languageen
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherElsevier BV
dc.subjectRare earth elements
dc.subjectNatural waters
dc.subjectMethods of analysis
dc.subjectReview
dc.titleDetermination of rare earth elements in natural water samples – A review of sample separation, preconcentration and direct methodologies
dc.typejournal-article
dc.typeReview
plymouth.author-urlhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27543012
plymouth.volume935
plymouth.publisher-urlhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2016.05.052
plymouth.publication-statusPublished
plymouth.journalAnalytica Chimica Acta
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.aca.2016.05.052
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Faculty of Science and Engineering
dc.publisher.placeNetherlands
dcterms.dateAccepted2016-05-28
dc.rights.embargodate2017-6-3
dc.identifier.eissn1873-4324
dc.rights.embargoperiodNot known
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1016/j.aca.2016.05.052
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://www.rioxx.net/licenses/all-rights-reserved
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2016-09-07
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review


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