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dc.contributor.authorNaeher, Sen
dc.contributor.authorLengger, SKen
dc.contributor.authorGrice, Ken
dc.date.accessioned2016-01-25T19:10:01Z
dc.date.available2016-01-25T19:10:01Z
dc.date.issued2016-01-11en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10026.1/4225
dc.description.abstract

Maleimides (1H-Pyrrole-2,5-diones) are monopyrrolic pigment derivatives with specific alkyl side chains that can be directly linked to their tetrapyrrole precursors, most notably chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls. These compounds can be used as palaeoenvironmental indicators such as, for instance, algal productivity and redox conditions in ancient and modern aquatic systems. Here, we present a new method using two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToF-MS), which enables the rapid analysis of maleimides in complex mixtures and different matrices (e.g. sediments and soils), therefore largely simplifying the previous intricate maleimide purification protocol. This method also reduces the potential for bias associated with partial losses due to low recovery and the high volatility of maleimides. The maleimide distributions and concentrations obtained by GC×GC-ToF-MS were reproducible and in agreement with the previously used purification procedure followed by analysis with traditional gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The new method also resolved previously unrecognised, partial coelution of some maleimides with unknown compounds by quantification with the m/z 75 fragment ion. Furthermore, the higher sensitivity enabled the detection of previously unrecognised and preliminarily identified maleimides based on their relative retention times. The new, easier, rapid and more sensitive GC×GC-ToF-MS method greatly facilitates the analysis of maleimides in environmental samples to study tetrapyrrole degradation processes and will further the development of maleimides as biomarkers for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions.

en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.subjectmaleimideen
dc.subjecttetrapyrroleen
dc.subjectchlorophyllen
dc.subjectgas chromatographyen
dc.subjectGC-MSen
dc.subjectGCxGC-TofMSen
dc.titleA new method for the rapid analysis of 1H-Pyrrole-2,5-diones (maleimides) in environmental samples by two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToF-MS)en
dc.typeJournal Article
plymouth.journalJournal of Chromatography Aen
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.chroma.2016.01.026en
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Faculty of Science and Engineering
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Faculty of Science and Engineering/School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/REF 2021 Researchers by UoA
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/REF 2021 Researchers by UoA/UoA07 Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Users by role
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Users by role/Academics
dc.rights.embargoperiodNo embargoen
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1016/j.chroma.2016.01.026en
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://www.rioxx.net/licenses/all-rights-reserveden
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen


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