Implications of the 2011 Great East Japan Tsunami on sea defence design
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© 2015 The Authors. After the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami, much of the world's effort to defend against tsunami concentrated on tsunami warning and evacuation. The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami led to direct and indirect losses as well as the deaths of many vulnerable members of Japan's coastal communities. This event has resulted in Japan rethinking and revising its design codes for sea defence structures. The new guidance emerging from this process is a valuable resource for other countries re-evaluating their own current mitigation strategies and this paper presents details of this process. The paper starts with the history of sea defence design standards in Japan and explains the process of revision of design guidelines since 2011. Examples of sea defences that failed and have since been rebuilt, observed during the two Earthquake Engineering Field Investigation Team (EEFIT) missions of 2011 and 2013, are also presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of international approaches and their application to nuclear power stations in Japan and the UK.
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