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dc.contributor.authorChen, X-G
dc.contributor.authorMilne, A
dc.contributor.authorKlar, JK
dc.contributor.authorGledhill, M
dc.contributor.authorLohan, MC
dc.contributor.authorHsieh, Y-T
dc.contributor.authorHenderson, GM
dc.contributor.authorWoodward, EMS
dc.contributor.authorAchterberg, EP

Trace metals (TMs) manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), and aluminium (Al) have important geochemical and biological roles in the ocean. Here, we present full depth profiles of dissolved (d) and particulate Al, Mn, and Co along the latitude of 40 °S in the South Atlantic Ocean from the GEOTRACES GA10 cruises that operated in austral spring 2010 and summer 2011. The region is characterized by enhanced primary productivity and forms a key transition zone between the Southern Ocean and South Atlantic Subtropical Gyre. The mean concentrations of dAl, dCo, and dMn (±standard deviation) were 3.36 ± 2.65 nmol kg−1, 35.3 ± 17.6 pmol kg−1, and 0.624 ± 1.08 nmol kg−1, respectively. Their distributions in surface waters were determined by external sources and complex internal biogeochemical processes. Specifically, surface ocean dCo was controlled by the interplay between phytoplankton uptake, remineralization and external inputs; dMn was likely determined by the formation and photoreduction of Mn-oxides; and dAl was supplied by atmospheric deposition and removed by scavenging onto particles. Fluvial and sedimentary inputs near the Rio de La Plata estuary and benthic sources from the Agulhas Bank resulted in elevated dTM concentrations in near-shore surface waters. These externally sourced dTMs were effectively delivered to the open ocean by offshore diffusion and/or advection, and potentially facilitated enhanced primary productivity along the transect.

The distributions of dTMs at depth were predominantly controlled by the mixing of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and waters of Antarctic origin (e.g., Upper Circumpolar Water (UCDW) and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW)). The calculated endmember concentrations of dAl and dCo in NADW showed minor decreases in the SASTG following north–south transport, suggesting removal rates of 0.064 nM/year and 0.035–0.075 pM/year, respectively. The endmember concentration of dCo in AABW was maintained at ∼30 pmol kg−1 without evidence for scavenging removal in the Southern Ocean and SASTG (time frame >400 years). The concentrations of dMn in NADW and AABW were between 0.1 and 0.16 nmol kg−1, and any elevated dMn concentrations were ascribed to local external inputs (e.g., from sediments in the Argentine Basin and hydrothermal activity near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge). Hence, four controlling factors (sources, internal cycling, water mass mixing and time) need to be considered when assessing TM distributions in the global ocean, even for TMs that are vulnerable to scavenging removal processes. Because the deep waters formed in high latitude oceans are crucial components of the global thermohaline overturning system, any processes (e.g., glacier melting, upwelling and sinking, and biological activity) that impact the preformed dTM concentrations in high latitude oceans will determine the downstream dTM distributions. Therefore, the sources and sinks of TMs and associated biological activity in high latitude oceans could engender basin to global scale impacts on seawater distributions of Al, Co, and Mn and their stoichiometric relationships with macronutrients, and the global biogeochemical cycles of these scavenged-type TMs.

dc.publisherElsevier BV
dc.subject37 Earth Sciences
dc.subject3708 Oceanography
dc.subject14 Life Below Water
dc.titleControls on distributions of aluminium, manganese and cobalt in the South Atlantic Ocean along GEOTRACES transect GA10
dc.typeJournal Article
plymouth.journalGeochimica et Cosmochimica Acta
plymouth.organisational-group|Plymouth|Research Groups
plymouth.organisational-group|Plymouth|Faculty of Science and Engineering
plymouth.organisational-group|Plymouth|Faculty of Science and Engineering|School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences
plymouth.organisational-group|Plymouth|REF 2021 Researchers by UoA
plymouth.organisational-group|Plymouth|Users by role
plymouth.organisational-group|Plymouth|Users by role|Current Academic staff
plymouth.organisational-group|Plymouth|Research Groups|BEACh
plymouth.organisational-group|Plymouth|REF 2021 Researchers by UoA|UoA07 Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences
plymouth.organisational-group|Plymouth|REF 2029 Researchers by UoA
plymouth.organisational-group|Plymouth|REF 2029 Researchers by UoA|UoA07 Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences

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