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dc.contributor.authorLekshmi, NM
dc.contributor.authorKumar, SS
dc.contributor.authorAshraf, PM
dc.contributor.authorXavier, KAM
dc.contributor.authorPrathish, KP
dc.contributor.authorAjay, SV
dc.contributor.authorEdwin, L
dc.contributor.authorTurner, A

Little information exists on the fate and impacts of boats constructed of fibreglass reinforced plastic (FRP) once they reach their end-of-life. In this study, the number of abandoned fishing boats constructed of FRP or constructed of plywood-wood and sheathed by FRP has been determined along the coast of Kerala, India, and chemical emissions have been estimated when boats are burned as a means of disposal. A total of 292 abandoned boats were observed across eight coastal transects constructed around selected landing centres, with abandonment ranging from 13 to 48 per km (average = 29 km−1). This results in the generation of 1420 kg of FRP debris (glass mat and epoxy resin) per km of coastline. A controlled combustion experiment, simulating open burning, revealed that 63% of original boat mass is emitted to the atmosphere, with the remainder forming a burnt residue. Total concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans emitted and remaining were found to be 2.6 ng Nm−3 and 249.6 μg kg−1, respectively, with respective calculated toxicity equivalence (TEQ) levels of 437.6 pg TEQ Nm−3 in air emissions and 26.6 μg TEQ kg−1 in the residue. These figures are equivalent to the total emission from FRP boat burning of about 17,000 μg TEQ t−1. Burning also generates significant quantities of potentially toxic metals, with resulting concentrations of Co, Cr and Cu close to or exceeding soil guideline values. The study calls for a greater awareness of the impacts arising from boat abandonment and burning amongst fishermen, and guidelines or regulatory protocols regarding safe and sustainable boat disposal or recycling.

dc.publisherSpringer Science and Business Media LLC
dc.subjectFibreglass reinforced plastic
dc.subjectPolychlorinated dibenzodioxins
dc.subjectPotentially toxic metals
dc.subjectToxicity equivalence
dc.titleAbandonment of fibreglass reinforced plastic fishing boats in Kerala, India, and chemical emissions arising from their burning
plymouth.journalEnvironmental Monitoring and Assessment
plymouth.organisational-group|Plymouth|Research Groups
plymouth.organisational-group|Plymouth|Faculty of Science and Engineering
plymouth.organisational-group|Plymouth|Faculty of Science and Engineering|School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences
plymouth.organisational-group|Plymouth|Research Groups|Marine Institute
plymouth.organisational-group|Plymouth|REF 2021 Researchers by UoA
plymouth.organisational-group|Plymouth|Users by role
plymouth.organisational-group|Plymouth|Users by role|Academics
plymouth.organisational-group|Plymouth|Research Groups|BEACh
plymouth.organisational-group|Plymouth|REF 2021 Researchers by UoA|UoA07 Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences
plymouth.organisational-group|Plymouth|REF 2028 Researchers by UoA
plymouth.organisational-group|Plymouth|REF 2028 Researchers by UoA|UoA07 Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences

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