Nano-diagnostics as an emerging platform for oral cancer detection: Current and emerging trends.
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Globally, oral cancer kills an estimated 150,000 individuals per year, with 300,000 new cases being diagnosed annually. The high incidence rate of oral cancer among the South-Asian and American populations is majorly due to overuse of tobacco, alcohol, and poor dental hygiene. Additionally, socio-economic issues and lack of general awareness delay the primary screening of the disease. The availability of early screening techniques for oral cancer can help in carving out a niche for accurate disease prognosis and also its prevention. However, conventional diagnostic approaches and therapeutics are still far from optimal. Thus, enhancing the analytical performance of diagnostic platforms in terms of specificity and precision can help in understanding the disease progression paradigm. Fabrication of efficient nanoprobes that are sensitive, noninvasive, cost-effective, and less labor-intensive can reduce the global cancer burden. Recent advances in optical, electrochemical, and spectroscopy-based nano biosensors that employ noble and superparamagnetic nanoparticles, have been proven to be extremely efficient. Further, these sensitive nanoprobes can also be employed for predicting disease relapse after chemotherapy, when the majority of the biomarker load is eliminated. Herein, we provide the readers with a brief summary of conventional and new-age oral cancer detection techniques. A comprehensive understanding of the inherent challenges associated with conventional oral cancer detection techniques is discussed. We also elaborate on how nanoparticles have shown tremendous promise and effectiveness in radically transforming the approach toward oral cancer detection. This article is categorized under: Diagnostic Tools > Biosensing Diagnostic Tools > Diagnostic Nanodevices Diagnostic Tools > In Vitro Nanoparticle-Based Sensing.
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