Fluorescent proteins and chromoproteins in phylum: Cnidaria
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Green fluorescent protein was first discovered in Aequorea victoria. Its significance in a continually expanding range of scientific applications led to the discovery of an abundance of homologous fluorescent proteins and non-fluorescent chromoproteins in a variety of species in the phylum Cnidaria. The document reviews the various proposed hypotheses on the biological functions and biochemistry of fluorescent proteins and chromoproteins, wherein a full resolution remains elusive and is the subject of on-going debate. Mutagenesis has provided novel variants and insights into the relationship between the spectral characteristics and chromophore structures of fluorescent proteins that encompass the visible spectrum. Fluorescent proteins as genetically encoded reporters have revealed important aspects of cellular biology and physiology that would have been unobtainable using traditional in vitro methods. The development of fluorescent proteins has opened up numerous possibilities for novel imaging techniques using living cells.
Lewis, M. (2012) 'Fluorescent proteins and chromoproteins in phylum: Cnidaria', The Plymouth Student Scientist, 5(2), p. 544-557.