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dc.contributor.authorComber, S
dc.contributor.authorGardner, M
dc.contributor.authorSörme, P
dc.contributor.authorEllor, B
dc.date.accessioned2019-05-15T12:11:06Z
dc.date.available2019-05-15T12:11:06Z
dc.date.issued2019-08-01
dc.identifier.issn0048-9697
dc.identifier.issn1879-1026
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10026.1/13979
dc.description.abstract

The presence of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in the environment is of growing concern and effluents from wastewater treatment works (WwTWs) are one of the major sources. This research combines the outputs of a multimillion pound UK program of work to evaluate the fate of APIs in the wastewater treatment process. A combination of analysis of measured data and modelling has been applied to 18 APIs, representing a wide range of medicinal application and physico-chemical characteristics. Some isomers (for atorvastatin) and metabolites (for sertraline, carbamazepine and erythromycin) were also included. High variability was observed between removal rates for individual APIs between WwTW, which after statistical analysis could not be explained by the nominal WwTW process (e.g. activated sludge or trickling filter). Nor was there a clear relationship between API removal and physico-chemical parameters such as pKa, charge or log Kow. A publically available sewage process model, SimpleTreat 4.0 which has been rigorously validated and is now being used for exposure assessment with REACH legislation for organic chemicals and within the Biocidal Products Regulation by the European Medicines Agency for APIs, was used to estimate removal rates with which to compare with measured data. SimpleTreat provided estimates of removal rates within ±30% of observed values for the majority of the APIs measured, with the use of readily available WwTW specific parameters such as flow, total suspended solids and BOD data. The data and correlations provided in this study provide support for any future considerations regarding the management of API discharge to the aquatic environment.

dc.format.extent222-230
dc.format.mediumPrint-Electronic
dc.languageen
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherElsevier
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/
dc.subjectPharmaceuticals
dc.subjectModelling
dc.subjectRemoval efficiency
dc.subjectWastewater treatment
dc.subjectActivated sludge
dc.subjectTrickling filter
dc.titleThe removal of pharmaceuticals during wastewater treatment: Can it be predicted accurately?
dc.typejournal-article
dc.typeArticle
plymouth.author-urlhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31048154
plymouth.volume676
plymouth.publisher-urlhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.113
plymouth.publication-statusPublished
plymouth.journalScience of the Total Environment
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.113
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Faculty of Science and Engineering
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Faculty of Science and Engineering/School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/REF 2021 Researchers by UoA
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/REF 2021 Researchers by UoA/UoA06 Agriculture, Veterinary and Food Science
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Research Groups
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Research Groups/BEACh
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Research Groups/Marine Institute
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Users by role
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Users by role/Academics
dc.publisher.placeNetherlands
dcterms.dateAccepted2019-04-08
dc.rights.embargodate2020-4-9
dc.identifier.eissn1879-1026
dc.rights.embargoperiodNot known
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.113
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2019-08-01
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review


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