Growth, lipid peroxidation, organic solutes, and anti-oxidative enzyme content in drought-stressed date palm embryogenic callus suspension induced by polyethylene glycol
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© 2017, The Society for In Vitro Biology. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) can be used in somatic embryogenesis to enhance embryogenic development and improve the success of in vitro culture but PEG also causes osmotic stress in developing embryos. The effects of PEG on embryo growth and development in date palm cell suspension culture and associated antioxidant enzyme activities were evaluated. Callus maintained on MS basal media was transferred to regeneration liquid media supplemented with increasing levels (0–20%) of polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG) to induce osmotic stress. The degree of embryogenic callus formation, its fresh weight, and the percentage of normal embryo callus shapes were increased with an increase in the level of PEG up to 10%. Total soluble protein (TSP), proline, glycine betaine (GB), total soluble phenol (TSPh), total sugars (TS), and total soluble organic acids (TOA) also increased whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity decreased in response to PEG supplementation. Raising the PEG level increased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration up to 10% PEG and thereafter decreased. Glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) activities decreased at the highest levels of PEG. The proportion of normal embryo developmental shapes were about 50% compared with 20% abnormal shapes at optimum levels of PEG. Proliferation of somatic embryos was influenced by their developmental shapes. Cv. Samani accumulated more organic solutes compared with cv. Sewi in both control and stress inducing media. In contrast, lipid peroxidation, GR, SOD, and CAT activities were significantly higher in cv. Sewi than in cv. Samani indicating that the cv. Samani had the ability to tolerate a higher level of osmotic stress compared to cv. Sewi due to the enhanced osmotic re-balancing within its tissues.
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