As the global maritime industry becomes increasingly dependent on advancing technology, it is important for the world to be more aware of, and understand, the possible scope and impacts cyberattacks can have on international shipping. This article explores the maritime-cyber landscape for security flaws related to the area of maritime operations with an emphasis on the system technology involved, how their vulnerabilities enable attacks with cyber elements, and possible outcomes. As ships become more sophisticated and connected, in order to meet the demands of shipping 90 per cent of the world’s goods, the cyber risks increase. This article aims to analyse compressively the unique nature of maritime cyber and cyber-physical threats to influence maritime cyber policies and improve global fleet security by suggesting adjustments and additions to current codes and policy to cover more comprehensively cyber and cyber-physical risks.



Publication Date


Publication Title

Journal of Cyber Policy

Organisational Unit

School of Engineering, Computing and Mathematics