Background: Around 2% of the population have intellectual disabilities. Over one-third people with intellectual disabilities (PwID) present with ‘challenging behaviour’, which nosologically and diagnostically is an abstract concept. Challenging behaviour is influenced by a range of bio-psycho-social factors in a population, which is unable to suitably comprehend and/or communicate concerns. This predisposes to poor health and social outcomes. There is no evidence-based treatments for managing challenging behaviour. Cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are being trialled for a range of disorders, which are over-represented in PwID and provoke challenging behaviours, such as severe epilepsy, spasticity, post-traumatic stress disorder, social phobia, pain, etc. Methods: This perspective review explores the different conditions, which benefit from medicinal CBD/THC preparations, by analysing recent literature from neurobiological, pre-clinical and clinical studies related to the topic. The evidence is synthesised to build an argument of the therapeutic benefits and challenges of medicinal cannabis to manage severe challenging behaviour in PwID. Results: There is developing evidence of medicinal CBD/THC improving psychiatric and behavioural presentations in general. In particular, there is emergent proof in certain key areas of influence of medicinal CBD/THC positively supporting challenging behaviour, for example in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. However, there are significant challenges in employing such treatments in vulnerable populations such as PwID. Conclusion: Further clinical research for the considered use of medicinal CBD/THC for challenging behaviour management in PwID is needed. Strong co-production with experts with lived experience is needed for further testing to be done in this exciting new area.



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Journal of Psychopharmacology



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Peninsula Medical School