Background & Objective: Indonesia’s ageing population and increasing number of people living with dementia poses significant challenge to the health system. Better understanding of factors related to dementia prevalence is needed to mitigate risk, improve care, and ultimately reduce the incidence of dementia. In this study, we aimed to describe associations between potential risk factors and dementia in Indonesia. Methods: A cross-sectional study, part of the Strengthening Responses to Dementia in Developing Countries (STRiDE) project, was conducted in two provinces in Indonesia, Jakarta and North Sumatra between September and December 2021. A total of 2,110 older adults and their informants completed questionnaires covering cognitive and functional status, socioeconomic, medical and lifestyle factors. Models for each potential modifiable risk factor were created and then adjusted by age, sex and literacy. Prevalence ratios (PRs) were calculated for each risk factor. Results: In the adjusted models, lower education, lower occupational attainment, unmanaged diabetes, stroke, head trauma within the past 5 years, hearing loss, and chronic obstructive airway disease were all associated with higher prevalence of dementia in Indonesia. Current smoking, historic depression and high blood pressure were associated with higher dementia prevalence, but not statistically significant. Conclusion: Improving socioeconomic status (i.e., education and employment) and reducing health- related risk factors may be viable solutions to reduce the high prevalence rates of dementia in Indonesia. Further longitudinal research is needed to confirm direction of effect and causality.



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Neurology Asia



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Peninsula Medical School