Background Health kiosks are publicly accessible computing devices that provide access to services, including health information provision, clinical measurement collection, patient self–check-in, telemonitoring, and teleconsultation. Although the increase in internet access and ownership of smart personal devices could make kiosks redundant, recent reports have predicted that the market will continue to grow. Objective We seek to clarify the current and future roles of health kiosks by investigating the settings, roles, and clinical domains in which kiosks are used; whether usability evaluations of health kiosks are being reported, and if so, what methods are being used; and what the barriers and facilitators are for the deployment of kiosks. Methods We conducted a scoping review using a bibliographic search of Google Scholar, PubMed, and Web of Science databases for studies and other publications between January 2009 and June 2020. Eligible papers described the implementation as primary studies, systematic reviews, or news and feature articles. Additional reports were obtained by manual searching and querying the key informants. For each article, we abstracted settings, purposes, health domains, whether the kiosk was opportunistic or integrated with a clinical pathway, and whether the kiosk included usability testing. We then summarized the data in frequency tables. Results A total of 141 articles were included, of which 134 (95%) were primary studies, and 7 (5%) were reviews. Approximately 47% (63/134) of the primary studies described kiosks in secondary care settings. Other settings included community (32/134, 23.9%), primary care (24/134, 17.9%), and pharmacies (8/134, 6%). The most common roles of the health kiosks were providing health information (47/134, 35.1%), taking clinical measurements (28/134, 20.9%), screening (17/134, 12.7%), telehealth (11/134, 8.2%), and patient registration (8/134, 6.0%). The 5 most frequent health domains were multiple conditions (33/134, 24.6%), HIV (10/134, 7.5%), hypertension (10/134, 7.5%), pediatric injuries (7/134, 5.2%), health and well-being (6/134, 4.5%), and drug monitoring (6/134, 4.5%). Kiosks were integrated into the clinical pathway in 70.1% (94/134) of studies, opportunistic kiosks accounted for 23.9% (32/134) of studies, and in 6% (8/134) of studies, kiosks were used in both. Usability evaluations of kiosks were reported in 20.1% (27/134) of papers. Barriers (e.g., use of expensive proprietary software) and enablers (e.g., handling of on-demand consultations) of deploying health kiosks were identified. Conclusions Health kiosks still play a vital role in the health care system, including collecting clinical measurements and providing access to web-based health services and information to those with little or no digital literacy skills and others without personal internet access. We identified research gaps, such as training needs for teleconsultations and scant reporting on usability evaluation methods.



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JMIR Medical Informatics





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School of Nursing and Midwifery