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dc.contributor.authorJoshi, LTen
dc.contributor.authorPhillips, DSen
dc.contributor.authorWilliams, CFen
dc.contributor.authorAlyousef, Aen
dc.contributor.authorBaillie, Len

Clostridium difficile is the commonest cause of hospital-acquired infection in the United Kingdom. We characterized the abilities of 21 clinical isolates to form spores; to adhere to inorganic and organic surfaces, including stainless steel and human adenocarcinoma cells; and to germinate. The composition of culture media had a significant effect on spore formation, as significantly more spores were produced in brain heart infusion broth (Student's t test; P = 0.018). The spore surface relative hydrophobicity (RH) varied markedly (14 to 77%) and was correlated with the ability to adhere to stainless steel. We observed no correlation between the ribotype and the ability to adhere to steel. When the binding of hydrophobic (DS1813; ribotype 027; RH, 77%) and hydrophilic (DS1748; ribotype 002; RH, 14%) spores to human gut epithelial cells at different stages of cell development was examined, DS1813 spores adhered more strongly, suggesting the presence of surface properties that aid attachment to human cells. Electron microscopy studies revealed the presence of an exosporium surrounding DS1813 spores that was absent from spores of DS1748. Finally, the ability of spores to germinate was found to be strain and medium dependent. While the significance of these findings to the disease process has yet to be determined, this study has highlighted the importance of analyzing multiple isolates when attempting to characterize the behavior of a bacterial species.

dc.format.extent7671 - 7679en
dc.subjectBacterial Adhesionen
dc.subjectCaco-2 Cellsen
dc.subjectCell Line, Tumoren
dc.subjectClostridium difficileen
dc.subjectEpithelial Cellsen
dc.subjectGastrointestinal Tracten
dc.subjectHydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactionsen
dc.subjectIntestinal Mucosaen
dc.subjectSpores, Bacterialen
dc.subjectStainless Steelen
dc.subjectSurface Propertiesen
dc.titleContribution of spores to the ability of Clostridium difficile to adhere to surfaces.en
dc.typeJournal Article
plymouth.journalAppl Environ Microbiolen
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/00 Groups by role
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/00 Groups by role/Academics
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry/Biomedical Research Group
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry/Biomedical Research Group/RC Reporting Group BRG
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/REF 2021 Researchers by UoA
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/REF 2021 Researchers by UoA/UoA01 Clinical Medicine
dc.publisher.placeUnited Statesen
dc.rights.embargoperiodNo embargoen
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen

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