Cross-shelf exchange in the northwestern Black Sea
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The transports of water, heat, and salt between the northwestern shelf and deep interior of the Black Sea are investigated using a high-resolution three-dimensional primitive equation model. From April to August 2005, both onshore and offshore cross-shelf break transports in the top 20 m were 0.24 Sv on average, which is equivalent to the replacement of 60% of the volume of surface shelf waters (0-20 m) per month. Two main exchange mechanisms are studied: Ekman transport, and transport by mesoscale eddies and associated meanders of the Rim Current. The Ekman drift causes nearly uniform onshore or offshore flow over a large section of the shelf break, but it is confined to the upper layers. In contrast, eddies and meanders penetrate deep down to the bottom, but they are restricted laterally. During the strong wind events of 15-22 April and 1-4 July, some 0.66 × 10 12 and 0.44 × 10 12 m 3 of water were removed from the northwestern shelf, respectively. In comparison, the single long-lived Sevastopol Eddy generated a much larger offshore transfer of 2.84 × 10 12 m 3 over the period 23 April to 30 June, which is equivalent to 102% of the volume of northwestern shelf waters. Over the study period, salt exchanges increased the average density of the shelf waters by 0.67 kg m -3 and reduced the density contrast between the shelf and deep sea, while lateral heat exchanges reduced the density of the shelf waters by 0.16 kg m -3 and sharpened the shelf break front. Key Points Cross-shelf break transports of volume, heat, and salt are quantified Exchange mechanisms by mesoscale eddy and wind-driven Ekman drift are analyzed Some exchange events are shown to cause a sharpening of the shelf break density front © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.
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