Two new Beggiatoa species inhabiting marine mangrove sediments in the Caribbean.
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Beggiatoaceae, giant sulphur-oxidizing bacteria, are well known to occur in cold and temperate waters, as well as hydrothermal vents, where they form dense mats on the floor. However, they have never been described in tropical marine mangroves. Here, we describe two new species of benthic Beggiatoaceae colonizing a marine mangrove adjacent to mangrove roots. We combined phylogenetic and lipid analysis with electron microscopy in order to describe these organisms. Furthermore, oxygen and sulphide measurements in and ex situ were performed in a mesocosm to characterize their environment. Based on this, two new species, Candidatus Maribeggiatoa sp. and Candidatus Isobeggiatoa sp. inhabiting tropical marine mangroves in Guadeloupe were identified. The species identified as Candidatus Maribeggiatoa group suggests that this genus could harbour a third cluster with organisms ranging from 60 to 120 μm in diameter. This is also the first description of an Isobeggiatoa species outside of Arctic and temperate waters. The multiphasic approach also gives information about the environment and indications for the metabolism of these bacteria. Our study shows the widespread occurrence of members of Beggiatoaceae family and provides new insight in their potential role in shallow-water marine sulphide-rich environments such as mangroves.
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