Fast, Ultrasensitive Detection of Reactive Oxygen Species Using a Carbon Nanotube Based-Electrocatalytic Intracellular Sensor.
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Herein, we report a highly sensitive electrocatalytic sensor-cell construct that can electrochemically communicate with the internal environment of immune cells (e.g., macrophages) via the selective monitoring of a particular reactive oxygen species (ROS), hydrogen peroxide. The sensor, which is based on vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized with an osmium electrocatalyst, enabled the unprecedented detection of a local intracellular "pulse" of ROS on a short second time scale in response to bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide-LPS) stimulation. Our studies have shown that this initial pulse of ROS is dependent on NADPH oxidase (NOX) and toll like receptor 4 (TLR4). The results suggest that bacteria can induce a rapid intracellular pulse of ROS in macrophages that initiates the classical innate immune response of these cells to infection.
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