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dc.contributor.authorComber, SDW
dc.contributor.authorRowett, C
dc.contributor.authorHutchinson, T
dc.date.accessioned2017-01-26T09:44:13Z
dc.date.issued2016-09-15
dc.identifier.issn0048-9697
dc.identifier.issn1879-1026
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10026.1/8314
dc.description.abstract

Regulatory ecotoxicology testing rarely accounts for the influence of natural water chemistry on the bioavailability and toxicity of a chemical. Therefore, this study identifies whether key omissions in relation to Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) and pH have an impact on measured effect concentrations (EC). Laboratory ecotoxicology tests were undertaken for the widely used antimicrobial compound triclosan, using adult Gammarus pulex (L.), a wild-type amphipod using synthetic fresh water, humic acid solutions and wastewater treatment works effluent. The toxicity of triclosan was tested at two different pHs of 7.3 and 8.4, with and without the addition of DOC and 24 and 48hour EC values with calculated 95% confidence intervals calculated. Toxicity tests undertaken at a pH above triclosan's pKa and in the presents of humic acid and effluent, containing 11 and 16mgL(-1) mean DOC concentrations respectively, resulted in significantly decreased triclosan toxicity. This was most likely a result of varying triclosan speciation and complexation due to triclosan's pKa and high hydrophobicity controlling its bioavailability. The mean 48hour EC50 values varied between 0.75±0.45 and 1.93±0.12mgL(-1) depending on conditions. These results suggest that standard ecotoxicology tests can cause inaccurate estimations of triclosan's bioavailability and subsequent toxicity in natural aquatic environments. These results highlight the need for further consideration regarding the role that water chemistry has on the toxicity of organic contaminants and how ambient environmental conditions are incorporated into the standard setting and consenting processes in the future.

dc.format.extent222-231
dc.format.mediumPrint-Electronic
dc.languageen
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherElsevier
dc.relation.replaces10026.1/5181
dc.relation.replaceshttp://hdl.handle.net/10026.1/5181
dc.subjectTriclosan
dc.subjectEffluent
dc.subjectpH
dc.subjectTOXICITY
dc.subjectbioavailability
dc.subjectDissolved Organic Carbon
dc.titleThe impact of natural and anthropogenic Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC), and pH on the toxicity of triclosan to the crustacean Gammarus pulex (L.).
dc.typejournal-article
dc.typeArticle
plymouth.author-urlhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27173840
plymouth.volume565
plymouth.publication-statusPublished
plymouth.journalScience of the Total Environment
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.04.170
pubs.merge-from10026.1/5181
pubs.merge-fromhttp://hdl.handle.net/10026.1/5181
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Faculty of Science and Engineering
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Faculty of Science and Engineering/School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/REF 2021 Researchers by UoA
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/REF 2021 Researchers by UoA/UoA06 Agriculture, Veterinary and Food Science
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Research Groups
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Research Groups/BEACh
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Research Groups/Marine Institute
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Users by role
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Users by role/Academics
dc.publisher.placeNetherlands
dcterms.dateAccepted2016-04-24
dc.rights.embargodate2017-5-9
dc.identifier.eissn1879-1026
dc.rights.embargoperiod12 months
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.04.170
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://www.rioxx.net/licenses/under-embargo-all-rights-reserved
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2016-09-15
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review


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