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dc.contributor.authorDavison, Gen
dc.contributor.authorMarchbank, Ten
dc.contributor.authorMarch, DSen
dc.contributor.authorThatcher, Ren
dc.contributor.authorPlayford, RJen
dc.date.accessioned2016-08-03T08:16:03Z
dc.date.issued2016-08-01en
dc.identifier.issn0002-9165en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10026.1/5166
dc.descriptionFull text under permanent embargo as per publisher policy.en
dc.description.abstract

BACKGROUND: Heavy exercise causes gut symptoms and, in extreme cases, heat stroke that is due to the increased intestinal permeability of luminal toxins. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether zinc carnosine (ZnC), a health-food product taken alone or in combination with bovine colostrum (a natural source of growth factors), would moderate such effects. DESIGN: Eight volunteers completed a 4-arm, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover protocol (14 d of placebo, ZnC, colostrum, or ZnC plus colostrum) before undertaking standardized exercise 2 and 14 d after the start of treatment. Changes in epithelial resistance, apoptosis signaling molecules, and tight junction (TJ) protein phosphorylation in response to a 2°C rise in body temperature were determined with the use of Caco-2 and HT29 intestinal cells. RESULTS: Body temperature increased 2°C, and gut permeability (5-h urinary lactulose:rhamnose ratios) increased 3-fold after exercise (from 0.32 ± 0.016 baseline to 1.0 ± 0.017 at 14 d; P < 0.01). ZnC or colostrum truncated the rise by 70% after 14 d of treatment. The combination treatment gave an additional benefit, and truncated exercise induced increase at 2 d (30% reduction; P < 0.01). A 2°C temperature rise in in vitro studies caused the doubling of apoptosis and reduced epithelial resistance 3-4-fold. ZnC or colostrum truncated these effects (35-50%) with the greatest response seen with the combination treatment (all P < 0.01). Mechanisms of action included increasing heat shock protein 70 and truncating temperature-induced changes in B cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 associated X protein α and B cell lymphoma 2. ZnC also increased total occludin and reduced phosphorylated tyrosine claudin, phosphorylated tyrosine occludin, and phosphorylated serine occludin, thereby enhancing the TJ formation and stabilization. CONCLUSION: ZnC, taken alone or with colostrum, increased epithelial resistance and the TJ structure and may have value for athletes and in the prevention of heat stroke in military personnel. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN51159138.

en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherOxford University Press (OUP)en
dc.subjectclinical trialen
dc.subjectgut growthen
dc.subjectinjuryen
dc.subjectnutriceuticalen
dc.subjectrepairen
dc.titleZinc carnosine works with bovine colostrum in truncating heavy exercise-induced increase in gut permeability in healthy volunteers.en
dc.typeJournal Article
plymouth.author-urlhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27357095en
plymouth.publication-statusPublisheden
plymouth.journalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutritionen
dc.identifier.doi10.3945/ajcn.116.134403en
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/00 Groups by role
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/00 Groups by role/Academics
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry/Collaboration for the Advancement of Medical Education Research Assessment
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/REF 2021 Researchers by UoA
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/REF 2021 Researchers by UoA/UoA01 Clinical Medicine
dcterms.dateAccepted2016-05-26en
dc.rights.embargodate9999-12-31en
dc.identifier.eissn1938-3207en
dc.rights.embargoperiodIndefiniteen
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.3945/ajcn.116.134403en
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://www.rioxx.net/licenses/under-embargo-all-rights-reserveden
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2016-08-01en
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen


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