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dc.contributor.authorGitrowski, Cen
dc.contributor.authorAl-Jubory, ARen
dc.contributor.authorHandy, RDen
dc.date.accessioned2016-06-22T16:05:52Z
dc.date.available2016-06-22T16:05:52Z
dc.date.issued2014-05-02en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10026.1/4949
dc.description.abstract

The gastrointestinal uptake of different crystal structures of TiO2 was investigated using Caco-2 intestinal cells. Caco-2 monolayers exhibited time-dependent, saturable uptake of Ti from TiO2 exposures of 1 mgl(-1) over 24h, which was influenced by crystal type. Initial uptake rates were 5.3, 3.73, 3.58 and 4.48 nmol mg(-1)protein h(-1) for bulk, P25, anatase and rutile forms respectively. All exposures caused elevations of Ti in the cells relative to the control (ANOVA P<0.05). Electron micrographs of the Caco-2 monolayer showed the presence of particles inside the cells, and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) confirmed the composition as TiO2. Incubating the cells with 120 IU nystatin (putative endocytosis inhibitor) or 100 μmol l(-1) vanadate (ATPase inhibitor) caused large increases in Ti accumulation for all crystal types relative to controls (ANOVA P<0.05), except for the rutile form with vanadate. Incubating the cells with 90 μmol l(-1) genistein (tyrosine kinase inhibitor) or 27 μmol l(-1) chloropromazine (clathrin-mediated endocytosis inhibitor) caused a large decrease in Ti accumulation relative to the controls (ANOVA P<0.05). Cell viability measures were generally good (low LDH leak, normal cell morphology), but there were some changes in the electrolyte composition (K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) of exposed cells relative to controls. A rise in total Ca(2+) concentration in the cells was observed for all TiO2 crystal type exposures. Overall, the data shows that Ti accumulation for TiO2 NP exposure in Caco-2 cells is crystal structure-dependent, and that the mechanism(s) involves endocytosis of intact particles.

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dc.format.extent264 - 276en
dc.languageengen
dc.language.isoengen
dc.subjectCaco-2en
dc.subjectElectrolyte homeostasisen
dc.subjectEndocytosisen
dc.subjectTitanium dioxide nanoparticlesen
dc.subjectUptake mechanismen
dc.subjectAmilorideen
dc.subjectCaco-2 Cellsen
dc.subjectCell Survivalen
dc.subjectChlorpromazineen
dc.subjectCrystallizationen
dc.subjectGenisteinen
dc.subjectHumansen
dc.subjectIntestinal Mucosaen
dc.subjectIntestinesen
dc.subjectNanoparticlesen
dc.subjectNystatinen
dc.subjectParticle Sizeen
dc.subjectTitaniumen
dc.subjectVanadatesen
dc.titleUptake of different crystal structures of TiO₂ nanoparticles by Caco-2 intestinal cells.en
dc.typeJournal Article
plymouth.author-urlhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24576787en
plymouth.issue3en
plymouth.volume226en
plymouth.publication-statusPublisheden
plymouth.journalToxicol Letten
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.toxlet.2014.02.014en
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/00 Groups by role
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/00 Groups by role/Academics
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Faculty of Science and Engineering
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Faculty of Science and Engineering/School of Biological and Marine Sciences
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/REF 2021 Researchers by UoA
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/REF 2021 Researchers by UoA/UoA06 Agriculture, Veterinary and Food Science
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Research Groups
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Research Groups/Marine Institute
dc.publisher.placeNetherlandsen
dcterms.dateAccepted2014-02-17en
dc.identifier.eissn1879-3169en
dc.rights.embargoperiodNo embargoen
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1016/j.toxlet.2014.02.014en
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://www.rioxx.net/licenses/all-rights-reserveden
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2014-05-02en
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen


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