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dc.contributor.authorTatsi, Ken
dc.contributor.authorTurner, Aen
dc.contributor.authorHandy, RDen
dc.contributor.authorShaw, BJen
dc.date.accessioned2016-06-22T15:48:34Z
dc.date.accessioned2016-06-22T15:50:11Z
dc.date.available2016-06-22T15:48:34Z
dc.date.available2016-06-22T15:50:11Z
dc.date.issued2015-12-01en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10026.1/4939
dc.description.abstract

The acute toxicity of Tl(I) to the microalga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the planktonic crustaceans, Daphnia magna and Daphnia pulex, and early-life stage of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, has been studied according to OECD protocols. Toxicological end-point concentrations for the microalga ranged from 17 μg l(-1) for a 72 h EyC25 (yield inhibition) to 80 μg l(-1) for a 72 h ErC50 (growth inhibition). Daphnia were less sensitive to Tl, with 48 h EC50s of about 1000 μg l(-1) and 1200 μg l(-1) for D. magna and D. pulex, respectively; however, end-point concentrations were reduced considerably (to about 510 μg l(-1) and 730 μg l(-1), respectively) when experiments were repeated in dechlorinated Plymouth tap water (rather than OECD medium). The 96 h LC50 for D. rerio was 870 μg l(-1) but a variety of sub-lethal effects, including enlargement of yolk sac and reduction in heart beat rate, were observed when larvae were exposed to lower concentrations. Based on these results, a predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) for Tl in freshwaters of 0.087 μg l(-1) is proposed. The PNEC is an order of magnitude lower than the only (Canadian) water quality guideline for Tl that appears to exist, and is lower than Tl concentrations reported in freshwaters impacted by historical or contemporary metal mining. Our results are also consistent with previous studies that employ different organisms and end-points in that Tl toxicity is dependent on the concentration of K+, the biogeochemical analogue of Tl+. Accordingly, regulation of Tl in the freshwater environment should factor in the relative abundance of K.

en
dc.format.extent382 - 390en
dc.languageengen
dc.language.isoengen
dc.relation.replaceshttp://hdl.handle.net/10026.1/4938
dc.relation.replaces10026.1/4938
dc.subjectFreshwater organismsen
dc.subjectPNECen
dc.subjectPotassiumen
dc.subjectThalliumen
dc.subjectToxicityen
dc.subjectWater quality guidelinesen
dc.subjectAnimalsen
dc.subjectAquatic Organismsen
dc.subjectCanadaen
dc.subjectChlorophytaen
dc.subjectDaphniaen
dc.subjectFresh Wateren
dc.subjectRisk Assessmenten
dc.subjectThalliumen
dc.subjectToxicity Testsen
dc.subjectWater Pollutants, Chemicalen
dc.titleThe acute toxicity of thallium to freshwater organisms: Implications for risk assessment.en
dc.typeJournal Article
plymouth.author-urlhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26225743en
plymouth.volume536en
plymouth.publication-statusPublisheden
plymouth.journalSci Total Environen
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.06.069en
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Faculty of Science and Engineering
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Faculty of Science and Engineering/School of Biological and Marine Sciences
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Faculty of Science and Engineering/School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/REF 2021 Researchers by UoA
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/REF 2021 Researchers by UoA/UoA06 Agriculture, Veterinary and Food Science
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/REF 2021 Researchers by UoA/UoA07 Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Research Groups
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Research Groups/BEACh
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Research Groups/Marine Institute
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Users by role
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Users by role/Academics
dc.publisher.placeNetherlandsen
dcterms.dateAccepted2015-06-18en
dc.identifier.eissn1879-1026en
dc.rights.embargoperiodNot knownen
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.06.069en
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://www.rioxx.net/licenses/all-rights-reserveden
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2015-12-01en
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen


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