Detergentless ultrasound-assisted extraction of trace elements from edible oils using lipase as an extractant.
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A new method for the extraction and preconcentration of trace elements (Al, Ba, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Ti, V and Zn) from edible oils by producing detergentless micro-emulsions via an ultrasound-assisted extraction using a water phase containing Lipase at pH 3 as an extractant was developed. The trace elements in the water phase post-extraction were determined against matrix matched standards using ICP-MS. In the first step of the work, the parameters that affect extraction, such as pH, the volume of 1% lipase in the water phase and the ultrasonic and centrifugation times were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limits (µg kg(-1)) were 0.46, 0.03, 0.007, 0.028, 0.67, 0.038, 0.022, 0.14, 0.17, 0.05 and 0.07 for Al, Ba, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Ti, V and Zn respectively for edible oils (3 Sb/m). A certified reference material (EnviroMAT HU-1 Used oil) was analysed to check the accuracy of the developed method. Results obtained were in agreement with certified values with a t-test showing that no significant differences at the 95% confidence levels were found. The proposed method was applied to different edible oils such as sunflower oil, rapeseed oil, olive oil and salmon oil.
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