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dc.contributor.authorSwigert, JPen
dc.contributor.authorLee, Cen
dc.contributor.authorWong, DCen
dc.contributor.authorWhite, Ren
dc.contributor.authorScarlett, AGen
dc.contributor.authorWest, CEen
dc.contributor.authorRowland, SJen
dc.date.accessioned2016-01-26T15:18:28Z
dc.date.available2016-01-26T15:18:28Z
dc.date.issued2014-11-27en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10026.1/4231
dc.description.abstract

This paper presents chemical composition and aquatic toxicity characteristics of a commercial sample of naphthenic acids (NAs). Naphthenic acids are derived from the refining of petroleum middle distillates and can contribute to refinery effluent toxicity. NAs are also present in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), but differences in the NAs compositions from these sources precludes using a common aquatic toxicity dataset to represent the aquatic hazards of NAs from both origins. Our chemical characterization of a commercial sample of NAs showed it to contain in order of abundance, 1-ring>2-ring>acyclic>3-ring acids (∼84%). Also present were monoaromatic acids (7%) and non-acids (9%, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and sulfur heterocyclic compounds). While the acyclic acids were only the third most abundant group, the five most abundant individual compounds were identified as C(10-14) n-acids (n-decanoic acid to n-tetradecanoic acid). Aquatic toxicity testing of fish (Pimephales promelas), invertebrate (Daphnia magna), algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), and bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) showed P. promelas to be the most sensitive species with 96-h LL50=9.0 mg L(-1) (LC50=5.6 mg L(-1)). Acute EL50 values for the other species ranged 24-46 mg L(-1) (EC50 values ranged 20-30 mg L(-1)). Biomimetic extraction via solid-phase-microextraction (BE-SPME) suggested a nonpolar narcosis mode of toxic action for D. magna, P. subcapitata, and V. fischeri. The BE analysis under-predicted fish toxicity, which indicates that a specific mode of action, besides narcosis, may be a factor for fishes.

en
dc.format.extent1 - 9en
dc.languageengen
dc.language.isoengen
dc.subjectAquatic toxicityen
dc.subjectBiomimetic extractionen
dc.subjectGC×GC–MSen
dc.subjectNaphthenic acidsen
dc.subjectAliivibrio fischerien
dc.subjectAnimalsen
dc.subjectCarboxylic Acidsen
dc.subjectChlorophytaen
dc.subjectCyprinidaeen
dc.subjectDaphniaen
dc.subjectWater Pollutants, Chemicalen
dc.titleAquatic hazard assessment of a commercial sample of naphthenic acids.en
dc.typeJournal Article
plymouth.author-urlhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25434270en
plymouth.volume124en
plymouth.publication-statusPublisheden
plymouth.journalChemosphereen
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.10.052en
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Faculty of Science and Engineering
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Research Groups
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Research Groups/Marine Institute
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Users by role
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Users by role/Professional Services staff
dc.publisher.placeEnglanden
dcterms.dateAccepted2014-10-26en
dc.rights.embargodate2016-11-23en
dc.identifier.eissn1879-1298en
dc.rights.embargoperiodNot knownen
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.10.052en
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://www.rioxx.net/licenses/all-rights-reserveden
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2014-11-27en
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen


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