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dc.contributor.authorRae, PJLen
dc.contributor.authorPerfect, TJen

Glenberg et al. (1998) reported that episodic memory is impaired by visual distraction and argued that this effect is consistent with a trade-off between internal and external attentional focus. However, their demonstration that visual distraction impairs memory for lists used 15 consecutive word-lists, with analysis only of mid-list items, and has never been replicated. Experiment 1 (N = 37) replicated their methodology and found the same pattern of impairment for mid-list recall, but found no evidence of impairment for other items on the lists. Experiment 2 (N = 64) explored whether this pattern arises because the mid-list items are poorly encoded (by manipulating presentation rate) or because of interference. Experiment 3 (N = 36) also looked at the role of interference whilst controlling for potential item effects. Neither study replicated the pattern seen in Experiment 1, despite reliable effects of presentation rate (Experiment 2) and interference (Experiments 2 and 3). Experiment 2 found no effect of distraction for mid-list items, but distraction did increase both correct and incorrect recall of all items suggestive of a shift in willingness to report. Experiment 3 found no effects of distraction whatsoever. Thus, there is no clear evidence that distraction consistently impairs retrieval of items from lists and therefore no consistent evidence to support the embodied cognition account used to explain the original finding.

dc.format.extent362 - ?en
dc.subjectdynamic visual noiseen
dc.subjectembodied memoryen
dc.subjectepisodic memoryen
dc.subjectrecall erroren
dc.subjectvisual distractionen
dc.subjectword-list recallen
dc.titleVisual distraction during word-list retrieval does not consistently disrupt memory.en
dc.typeJournal Article
plymouth.publication-statusPublished onlineen
plymouth.journalFront Psycholen
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/00 Groups by role
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/00 Groups by role/Academics
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/00 Groups by role/Post-Graduate Research Students
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Faculty of Health and Human Sciences
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Faculty of Health and Human Sciences/School of Nursing and Midwifery
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Faculty of Health and Human Sciences/School of Psychology
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/REF 2021 Researchers by UoA
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/REF 2021 Researchers by UoA/UoA04 Psychology, Psychiatry and Neuroscience
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Research Groups
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Research Groups/Centre for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour (CBCB)
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Research Groups/Centre for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour (CBCB)/Cognition
dc.rights.embargoperiodNo embargoen
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen

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