Physical, Chemical and Functional Properties of Tiger Nuts (Cyperus esculentus) Selected from Ghana, Cameroon and UK Market (Spain)
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Physical, chemical and functional properties of tiger nuts selected from Ghana, Cameroon and UK (market (Spain) Abstract The tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) has attracted a lot of unsubstantiated health claims, yet there is a dearth of research investigation within Ghana specifically in the area of food product development. This study addresses the development of ‘functional bread and biscuit’ from tiger nuts obtained from UK market (Spain). The chemical constituents; carbohydrate, lipid, protein, dietary minerals and antioxidants, the functional properties of three varieties of tiger nuts obtained from Ghana (black and brown), Cameroon (yellow) and UK market (Spain) (brown) were investigated using standard analytical methods as well as the blood glucose response of healthy adults who consumed the developed bread. Tiger nuts were found to be good sources of carbohydrate (51-82g/100g) and lipids (21-37g/100g). The dietary fibre components ranged between 18, 1, 19 and 19g/100g for IDF, SDFP, HMWDF, and ITDF respectively, while the available carbohydrate as sugars were 45, 0.5 and 5g/100g for glucose, maltose and xylose respectively. Minerals that were found to be inherent to the crop were; potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, iron, zinc and selenium and do not depend on place of origin. The following ratios for Sodium/Potassium 0.04, Calcium/Phosphorus 0.13 and Calcium/Magnesium 0.28 were obtained. Tiger nuts had TPC ≥ 134GAE per g, DPPH and stability index of 0.9-8.7mmol/litre and 3- 4 respectively. In conclusion the tiger nuts originating from different geographical locations were good sources of health giving minerals and had diversity of physical properties and chemical constituents which could inform future research in the functional food industry. Tiger nut could be added to the Ghana food basket and the product developed from it could be a potential functional food because of its effect on glucose response and phytochemical contents. It could again be used to replace artificial antioxidants (BHA or BHT) which are used in the food industry to inhibit lipid and protein oxidation especially the black variety.
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