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dc.contributor.authorZhang, S
dc.contributor.authorBorthwick, AGL
dc.contributor.authorLin, Z

<jats:p>This paper investigates the steady-state pattern evolution of symmetric Faraday waves excited in a brimful cylindrical container when driving parameters much exceed critical thresholds. In such liquid systems, parametric surface responses are typically considered as the resonant superposition of unstable standing waves. A modified free-surface synthetic Schlieren method is employed to obtain full three-dimensional spatial reconstructions of instantaneous surface patterns. Multi-azimuth structures and localized travelling waves during the small-elevation phases of the oscillation cycle give rise to modal decomposition in the form of <jats:inline-formula> <jats:alternatives> <jats:inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="" mime-subtype="png" xlink:href="S0022112023008388_inline1.png" /> <jats:tex-math>$\nu$</jats:tex-math> </jats:alternatives> </jats:inline-formula>-basis modes. Two-step surface-fitting results provide insight into the spatiotemporal characteristics of dominant wave components and corresponding harmonics in the experimental observations. Arithmetic combination of modal indices and uniform frequency distributions reveal the nonlinear mechanisms behind pattern formation and the primary pathways of energy transfer. Taking the hypothetical surface manifestation of multiple azimuths as the modal solutions, a linear stability analysis of the inviscid system is utilised to calculate fundamental resonance tongues (FRTs) with non-overlapping bottoms, which correspond to subharmonic or harmonic <jats:inline-formula> <jats:alternatives> <jats:inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="" mime-subtype="png" xlink:href="S0022112023008388_inline2.png" /> <jats:tex-math>$\nu$</jats:tex-math> </jats:alternatives> </jats:inline-formula>-basis modes induced by surface instability at the air–liquid interface. Close relationships between experimental observations and corresponding FRTs provide qualitative verification of dominant modes identified using surface-fitting results. This supports the validity and rationality of the applied <jats:inline-formula> <jats:alternatives> <jats:inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="" mime-subtype="png" xlink:href="S0022112023008388_inline3.png" /> <jats:tex-math>$\nu$</jats:tex-math> </jats:alternatives> </jats:inline-formula>-basis modes.</jats:p>

dc.publisherCambridge University Press (CUP)
dc.subjectFaraday waves
dc.subjectpattern formation
dc.subjectparametric instability
dc.titlePattern evolution and modal decomposition of Faraday waves in a brimful cylinder
plymouth.journalJournal of Fluid Mechanics
plymouth.organisational-group|Plymouth|Faculty of Science and Engineering
plymouth.organisational-group|Plymouth|Faculty of Science and Engineering|School of Engineering, Computing and Mathematics
plymouth.organisational-group|Plymouth|REF 2021 Researchers by UoA
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plymouth.organisational-group|Plymouth|REF 2021 Researchers by UoA|UoA12 Engineering
plymouth.organisational-group|Plymouth|REF 2029 Researchers by UoA
plymouth.organisational-group|Plymouth|REF 2029 Researchers by UoA|UoA12 Engineering

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