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dc.contributor.authorZhang, H
dc.contributor.authorLee, J-W
dc.contributor.authorNasti, G
dc.contributor.authorHandy, Richard
dc.contributor.authorAbate, A
dc.contributor.authorGrätzel, M
dc.contributor.authorPark, N-G
dc.date.accessioned2023-08-08T12:14:38Z
dc.date.available2023-08-08T12:14:38Z
dc.date.issued2023-05-25
dc.identifier.issn0028-0836
dc.identifier.issn1476-4687
dc.identifier.urihttps://pearl.plymouth.ac.uk/handle/10026.1/21186
dc.description.abstract

Lead halide perovskites are promising semiconducting materials for solar energy harvesting. However, the presence of heavy-metal lead ions is problematic when considering potential harmful leakage into the environment from broken cells and also from a public acceptance point of view. Moreover, strict legislation on the use of lead around the world has driven innovation in the development of strategies for recycling end-of-life products by means of environmentally friendly and cost-effective routes. Lead immobilization is a strategy to transform water-soluble lead ions into insoluble, nonbioavailable and nontransportable forms over large pH and temperature ranges and to suppress lead leakage if the devices are damaged. An ideal methodology should ensure sufficient lead-chelating capability without substantially influencing the device performance, production cost and recycling. Here we analyse chemical approaches to immobilize Pb2+ from perovskite solar cells, such as grain isolation, lead complexation, structure integration and adsorption of leaked lead, based on their feasibility to suppress lead leakage to a minimal level. We highlight the need for a standard lead-leakage test and related mathematical model to be established for the reliable evaluation of the potential environmental risk of perovskite optoelectronics.

dc.format.extent687-695
dc.format.mediumPrint-Electronic
dc.languageen
dc.publisherSpringer Science and Business Media LLC
dc.subject7 Affordable and Clean Energy
dc.titleLead immobilization for environmentally sustainable perovskite solar cells
dc.typejournal-article
dc.typeJournal Article
dc.typeReview
plymouth.author-urlhttps://www.webofscience.com/api/gateway?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000995020000009&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=11bb513d99f797142bcfeffcc58ea008
plymouth.issue7962
plymouth.volume617
plymouth.publication-statusPublished
plymouth.journalNature
dc.identifier.doi10.1038/s41586-023-05938-4
plymouth.organisational-group|Plymouth
plymouth.organisational-group|Plymouth|Research Groups
plymouth.organisational-group|Plymouth|Faculty of Science and Engineering
plymouth.organisational-group|Plymouth|Faculty of Science and Engineering|School of Biological and Marine Sciences
plymouth.organisational-group|Plymouth|Research Groups|Marine Institute
plymouth.organisational-group|Plymouth|REF 2021 Researchers by UoA
plymouth.organisational-group|Plymouth|Users by role
plymouth.organisational-group|Plymouth|Users by role|Academics
plymouth.organisational-group|Plymouth|REF 2021 Researchers by UoA|UoA06 Agriculture, Veterinary and Food Science
dc.publisher.placeEngland
dcterms.dateAccepted2023-03-10
dc.date.updated2023-08-08T12:14:13Z
dc.rights.embargodate2023-11-24
dc.identifier.eissn1476-4687
dc.rights.embargoperiodforever
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1038/s41586-023-05938-4


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