BILLS OF LADING AND ELECTRONIC EQUIVALENT
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This thesis will examine bills of lading and their electronic equivalent offered currently to the commercial world. Accepting that electronic equivalent of bills of lading are a commercial reality, the aim of this study is to examine how these systems successfully operate on the current legal framework designed for their paper counterparts. Therefore the first part of this study is dedicated to paper bills of lading and the functions they acquired over the years, whilst the second part of this study is devoted to the examination of their electronic equivalent currently offered. Specifically, it will be examined whether and how these electronic bills of lading work within the current legal framework. However, only BOLERO and CARGODOCS will be examined in detail as they are the only systems that operate on a commercial level at present. Also, this thesis includes a brief examination of the Rotterdam Rules with regards to these electronic transport documents. The study will conclude by briefly discussing fraud issues related to traditional bills of lading and their electronic equivalent.
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