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dc.contributor.authorDorrell, RM
dc.contributor.authorLloyd, CJ
dc.contributor.authorLincoln, BJ
dc.contributor.authorRippeth, TP
dc.contributor.authorTaylor, JR
dc.contributor.authorCaulfield, C-CP
dc.contributor.authorSharples, J
dc.contributor.authorPolton, JA
dc.contributor.authorScannell, BD
dc.contributor.authorGreaves, DM
dc.contributor.authorHall, RA
dc.contributor.authorSimpson, JH

<jats:p>The offshore wind energy sector has rapidly expanded over the past two decades, providing a renewable energy solution for coastal nations. Sector development has been led in Europe, but is growing globally. Most developments to date have been in well-mixed, i.e., unstratified, shallow-waters near to shore. Sector growth is, for the first time, pushing developments to deep water, into a brand new environment: seasonally stratified shelf seas. Seasonally stratified shelf seas, where water density varies with depth, have a disproportionately key role in primary production, marine ecosystem and biogeochemical cycling. Infrastructure will directly mix stratified shelf seas. The magnitude of this mixing, additional to natural background processes, has yet to be fully quantified. If large enough it may erode shelf sea stratification. Therefore, offshore wind growth may destabilize and fundamentally change shelf sea systems. However, enhanced mixing may also positively impact some marine ecosystems. This paper sets the scene for sector development into this new environment, reviews the potential physical and environmental benefits and impacts of large scale industrialization of seasonally stratified shelf seas and identifies areas where research is required to best utilize, manage, and mitigate environmental change.</jats:p>

dc.publisherFrontiers Media
dc.subject37 Earth Sciences
dc.subject3708 Oceanography
dc.subject7 Affordable and Clean Energy
dc.subject13 Climate Action
dc.subject14 Life Below Water
dc.titleAnthropogenic Mixing in Seasonally Stratified Shelf Seas by Offshore Wind Farm Infrastructure
plymouth.publication-statusPublished online
plymouth.journalFrontiers in Marine Science
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Faculty of Science and Engineering
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Faculty of Science and Engineering/School of Engineering, Computing and Mathematics
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/PRIMaRE Publications
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/REF 2021 Researchers by UoA
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/REF 2021 Researchers by UoA/UoA12 Engineering
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Research Groups
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Research Groups/Marine Institute
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Users by role
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Users by role/Academics
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Users by role/Researchers in ResearchFish submission
dc.rights.embargoperiodNot known
rioxxterms.funderEngineering and Physical Sciences Research Council
rioxxterms.identifier.projectSupergen ORE hub 2018
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review
plymouth.funderSupergen ORE hub 2018::Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council

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