Spatial distributions and seasonality of four Calanus species in the Northeast Atlantic
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This paper analyses spatial and seasonal patterns for near-surface abundances of four Calanus species in the Northeast Atlantic based on monthly Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) Survey data collected during 2008–2016. C. finmarchicus, C. helgolandicus, C. hyperboreus and C. glacialis represent different ecosystems, and water masses with differing oceanographic properties and origins. Hence, these are considered as indicator species in climate change studies. A southern transect between Norway and the United Kingdom represented the northern North Sea, a central transect crossed the Norwegian and Iceland Seas, while a northern transect between Norway and Svalbard crossed the entrance to the Barents Sea. C. finmarchicus was prevalent everywhere, while C. helgolandicus was mainly confined to the northern North Sea though also documented downstream in the Norwegian Sea as far north as the entrance to the Barents Sea. The ratio of C. helgolandicus to C. finmarchicus abundances is expected to increase in the northern North Sea and southern Norwegian Sea given continued increases in seawater temperature. C. hyperboreus and C. glacialis were mainly associated with regions influenced by Arctic waters in the Iceland and Norwegian Seas, and south of Svalbard, respectively. Within Atlantic water masses in the central Norwegian Sea, a distinct second generation of C. finmarchicus with surprisingly high late-autumn concentrations of older stages were found. In Coastal water, two or more generations of C. finmarchicus occurred, while only one generation was evident in Arctic waters. Young C. finmarchicus of the first annual generation showed an earlier timing in Coastal than Atlantic and Arctic waters. The upper range of the temperature niche for both C. hyperboreus and C. glacialis was found to be around 7 °C. However, the peak occurrence within the study area was in 1–2 °C in Arctic water in the Iceland Sea in April for C. hyperboreus, while around 5 °C in Barents Sea Arctic water in July for C. glacialis. C. finmarchicus was present in all water masses with a peak occurrence in June at around 6 °C. C. finmarchicus generally dominated the Calanus-biomass, but C. hyperboreus in Arctic water in the Iceland and Norwegian Seas in spring, and C. helgolandicus in the northern North Sea, could match or exceed the biomass of C. finmarchicus.
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