Case Study of a Cyber-Physical Attack Affecting Port and Ship Operational Safety
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As the maritime sector embraces more technology to increase efficiency, lower carbon emissions, and adapt to meet modern challenges, cyber and cyber-physical safety become a more significant issue. However, unfortunately, much of past research view cyber-security issues in transportation as primarily information technology problems. This paper designs and uses a case study to illustrate how cyber-security and physical safety should be viewed together, cyber and physical (i.e. cyber-physical), when considering ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore interactions. While there is some scenario designing, this case study is built with real port data and ship systems to demonstrate a real-world cyber-attack on a ship. It shows plausible physical effects that affect the safety of those involved. This case study is also made realistic with a novel hybrid cyber range and hardware testbed environment, designed to examine the different effects a ship-based cyber-attack could potentially have on a port. This informs several solutions, technical and social, that could enhance cyber-physical safety in marine transportation.