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dc.contributor.authorRolph, Cen
dc.contributor.authorGwyther, Cen
dc.contributor.authorTyrrel, Sen
dc.contributor.authorNasir, Zen
dc.contributor.authorDrew, Gen
dc.contributor.authorJackson, Sen
dc.contributor.authorKhera, Sen
dc.contributor.authorHayes, Een
dc.contributor.authorWilliams, Ben
dc.contributor.authorBennett, Aen
dc.contributor.authorCollins, Sen
dc.contributor.authorWalsh, Ken
dc.contributor.authorKinnersley, Ren
dc.contributor.authorGladding, Ten
dc.date.accessioned2021-10-14T12:50:31Z
dc.date.available2021-10-14T12:50:31Z
dc.date.issued2018-09-26en
dc.identifier.issn2073-4433en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10026.1/18066
dc.description.abstract

<jats:p>Endotoxin is a bioaerosol component that is known to cause respiratory effects in exposed populations. To date, most research focused on occupational exposure, whilst much less is known about the impact of emissions from industrial operations on downwind endotoxin concentrations. A review of the literature was undertaken, identifying studies that reported endotoxin concentrations in both ambient environments and around sources with high endotoxin emissions. Ambient endotoxin concentrations in both rural and urban areas are generally below 10 endotoxin units (EU) m−3; however, around significant sources such as compost facilities, farms, and wastewater treatment plants, endotoxin concentrations regularly exceeded 100 EU m−3. However, this is affected by a range of factors including sampling approach, equipment, and duration. Reported downwind measurements of endotoxin demonstrate that endotoxin concentrations can remain above upwind concentrations. The evaluation of reported data is complicated due to a wide range of different parameters including sampling approaches, temperature, and site activity, demonstrating the need for a standardised methodology and improved guidance. Thorough characterisation of ambient endotoxin levels and modelling of endotoxin from pollution sources is needed to help inform future policy and support a robust health-based risk assessment process.</jats:p>

en
dc.format.extent375 - 375en
dc.languageenen
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherMDPIen
dc.titleSources of Airborne Endotoxins in Ambient Air and Exposure of Nearby Communities—A Reviewen
dc.typeJournal Article
plymouth.issue10en
plymouth.volume9en
plymouth.journalAtmosphereen
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/atmos9100375en
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Faculty of Health
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Faculty of Health/School of Biomedical Sciences
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Research Groups
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Research Groups/Institute of Translational and Stratified Medicine (ITSMED)
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Research Groups/Institute of Translational and Stratified Medicine (ITSMED)/CBR
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Users by role
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Users by role/Academics
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Users by role/Researchers in ResearchFish submission
dcterms.dateAccepted2018-09-19en
dc.rights.embargodate2021-10-15en
dc.identifier.eissn2073-4433en
dc.rights.embargoperiodNot knownen
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.3390/atmos9100375en
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://www.rioxx.net/licenses/all-rights-reserveden
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2018-09-26en
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen
plymouth.funderDetection and characterisation of inflammatory agents associated with bioaerosol emitted from biowaste and intensive agriculture::NERCen


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