Current state-of-the-art diagnostics for Norovirus detection: Model approaches for point-of-care analysis
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Background: The implementation of fast, sensitive and specific diagnostic tools such as those for point-of-care testing (POCT) can assure public health security and food safety against foodborne infectious disease outbreaks. Norovirus is the most common pathogen causing foodborne outbreaks and the most frequent cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans. This frequency in outbreaks highlights the importance of the development and application of new portable diagnostic concepts and sensitive, multiplex, accurate, real-time (SMART) technologies considering the recommendations of Public Health Authorities accentuating personal and food hygiene measures to limit the spread of the virus. The development of POCT using handheld devices has significantly increased in recent years to detect norovirus due to the undeniable advantages of these methods such as rapidness, ultra-sensitivity and simplicity for norovirus diagnosis, in comparison to the ‘gold standard’ quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Scope and approach: Recent progress in the development of POCT devices and changing detection priorities in the food industry highlights the importance of efficient POCT methods selection, therefore, this review sought to outline the comparison of emerging POCT methods to be used for the analysis of food, water and clinical samples including molecular methods, biosensing technologies, immunodiagnostics, microarrays, and other prospective methods whereby implementation could aid the investigation of outbreaks of norovirus. Key findings: In this study, advantages and disadvantages of POCT methods are illustrated and the prospective identification of POCT methods are compared and discussed. In summary, the concluding remarks illustrate the future trends and directions for POCT methods which can be applied to detect norovirus and other viruses.
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