Achieving energy resilience through smart storage of solar electricity at dwelling and community level
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This paper empirically evaluates the extent of energy resilience achieved in a socially-deprived community in Oxford, through deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems and smart batteries (internet enabled and controllable) across a cluster of 82 dwellings (households). The methodological approach comprised dwelling and household surveys, along with high frequency monitoring of household electricity consumption, solar PV generation, battery charge and discharge data. In the monitored households, average daily electricity consumption was found to be positively related with dwelling size, number of occupants and number of appliances used. Although 117 MWh of PV electricity was generated within a year across 74 dwellings, peak generation did not match peak consumption, demonstrating the need for battery storage. Home batteries were found to increase self-consumption of PV electricity and offset grid demand through discharge of stored PV electricity marginally at an average of 6%, depending on the size of the PV system, surplus PV electricity available and size of the battery. Aggregating solar generation and storage at a community level showed that peak grid electricity demand between 17:00 and 19:00 was reduced by 8% through the use of smart batteries across 74 dwellings. In future, a local energy sharing scheme could be developed, wherein not all dwellings would need to have solar PV systems, but rather have internet enabled batteries that could be monitored and controlled virtually.
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