Transparent Authentication Utilising Gait Recognition
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Securing smartphones has increasingly become inevitable due to their massive popularity and significant storage and access to sensitive information. The gatekeeper of securing the device is authenticating the user. Amongst the many solutions proposed, gait recognition has been suggested to provide a reliable yet non-intrusive authentication approach – enabling both security and usability. While several studies exploring mobile-based gait recognition have taken place, studies have been mainly preliminary, with various methodological restrictions that have limited the number of participants, samples, and type of features; in addition, prior studies have depended on limited datasets, actual controlled experimental environments, and many activities. They suffered from the absence of real-world datasets, which lead to verify individuals incorrectly. This thesis has sought to overcome these weaknesses and provide, a comprehensive evaluation, including an analysis of smartphone-based motion sensors (accelerometer and gyroscope), understanding the variability of feature vectors during differing activities across a multi-day collection involving 60 participants. This framed into two experiments involving five types of activities: standard, fast, with a bag, downstairs, and upstairs walking. The first experiment explores the classification performance in order to understand whether a single classifier or multi-algorithmic approach would provide a better level of performance. The second experiment investigated the feature vector (comprising of a possible 304 unique features) to understand how its composition affects performance and for a comparison a more particular set of the minimal features are involved. The controlled dataset achieved performance exceeded the prior work using same and cross day methodologies (e.g., for the regular walk activity, the best results EER of 0.70% and EER of 6.30% for the same and cross day scenarios respectively). Moreover, multi-algorithmic approach achieved significant improvement over the single classifier approach and thus a more practical approach to managing the problem of feature vector variability. An Activity recognition model was applied to the real-life gait dataset containing a more significant number of gait samples employed from 44 users (7-10 days for each user). A human physical motion activity identification modelling was built to classify a given individual's activity signal into a predefined class belongs to. As such, the thesis implemented a novel real-world gait recognition system that recognises the subject utilising smartphone-based real-world dataset. It also investigates whether these authentication technologies can recognise the genuine user and rejecting an imposter. Real dataset experiment results are offered a promising level of security particularly when the majority voting techniques were applied. As well as, the proposed multi-algorithmic approach seems to be more reliable and tends to perform relatively well in practice on real live user data, an improved model employing multi-activity regarding the security and transparency of the system within a smartphone. Overall, results from the experimentation have shown an EER of 7.45% for a single classifier (All activities dataset). The multi-algorithmic approach achieved EERs of 5.31%, 6.43% and 5.87% for normal, fast and normal and fast walk respectively using both accelerometer and gyroscope-based features – showing a significant improvement over the single classifier approach. Ultimately, the evaluation of the smartphone-based, gait authentication system over a long period of time under realistic scenarios has revealed that it could provide a secured and appropriate activities identification and user authentication system.
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