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dc.contributor.authorMcCarroll, Jak
dc.contributor.authorMasselink, Gerd
dc.contributor.authorWiggins, Mark
dc.contributor.authorScott, Tim
dc.contributor.authorBillson, O
dc.contributor.authorConley, Daniel
dc.contributor.authorValiente, NG

<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>Gravel beaches are common throughout the high latitudes, but few studies have examined gravel transport rates, in particular at high energy levels, and no studies have quantified gravel transport around headlands. Here, we present the first complete sediment budget, including supra‐, inter‐ and sub‐tidal regions of the beach, across multiple headland‐separated gravel embayments, combined with hydrodynamic observations, over an extreme storm sequence, representing at least a 1‐in‐50‐year event. Unprecedented erosion was observed (~400 m<jats:sup>3</jats:sup> m<jats:sup>−1</jats:sup>, −6 m vertical), with alongshore flux of 2 × 10<jats:sup>5</jats:sup> m<jats:sup>3</jats:sup>, equivalent to annual rates. Total system volume change was determined to the depth of closure and then used to calculate alongshore flux rates. Alongshore wave power was obtained from a wave transformation model. For an open section of coastline, we derive a transport coefficient (CERC formula) of <jats:styled-content><jats:italic>K</jats:italic><jats:sub><jats:italic>Hs</jats:italic></jats:sub></jats:styled-content> = 0.255 ± 0.05, exceeding estimates in lower‐energy conditions by a factor of 5 or more. We apply this coefficient to rocky segments of the shoreline, determining rates of headland bypass from 0 to 31% of potential flux, controlled by headland extent and toe depth. Our results support the hypothesis that gravel is transported more efficiently at higher energy levels and that a variable rate or threshold approach may be required. Complete coverage and varying morphology make this dataset uniquely suited to improving model predictions of gravel shoreline change. © 2019 John Wiley &amp; Sons, Ltd. © 2019 John Wiley &amp; Sons, Ltd.</jats:p>

dc.subjectstorm response
dc.subjectembayed beach
dc.subjectreflective beach
dc.subjectsediment budget
dc.subjectbeach morphodynamics
dc.titleHigh-efficiency gravel longshore sediment transport and headland bypassing over an extreme wave event
dc.typeJournal Article
plymouth.journalEarth Surface Processes and Landforms
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Faculty of Science and Engineering
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Faculty of Science and Engineering/School of Biological and Marine Sciences
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/PRIMaRE Publications
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/REF 2021 Researchers by UoA
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/REF 2021 Researchers by UoA/UoA07 Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Research Groups
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Research Groups/Marine Institute
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Users by role
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Users by role/Academics
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Users by role/Researchers in ResearchFish submission
dc.rights.embargoperiodNot known
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review
plymouth.funderPhysical and biological dynamic coastal processes and their role in coastal recovery (BLUE-coast)::NERC
plymouth.funderPhysical and biological dynamic coastal processes and their role in coastal recovery (BLUE-coast)::NERC

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