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dc.contributor.authorNapper, IE
dc.contributor.authorThompson, RC
dc.date.accessioned2019-06-15T11:30:37Z
dc.date.available2019-06-15T11:30:37Z
dc.date.issued2019-05-07
dc.identifier.issn0013-936X
dc.identifier.issn1520-5851
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10026.1/14316
dc.description.abstract

There is clear evidence that discarded single-use carrier bags are accumulating in the environment. As a result, various plastic formulations have been developed which state they deteriorate faster and/or have fewer impacts on the environment because their persistence is shorter. This study examined biodegradable, oxo-biodegradable, compostable, and high-density polyethylene (i.e., a conventional plastic carrier bag) materials over a 3 year period. These materials were exposed in three natural environments; open-air, buried in soil, and submersed in seawater, as well as in controlled laboratory conditions. In the marine environment, the compostable bag completely disappeared within 3 months. However, the same compostable bag type was still present in the soil environment after 27 months but could no longer hold weight without tearing. After 9 months exposure in the open-air, all bag materials had disintegrated into fragments. Collectively, our results showed that none of the bags could be relied upon to show any substantial deterioration over a 3 year period in all of the environments. It is therefore not clear that the oxo-biodegradable or biodegradable formulations provide sufficiently advanced rates of deterioration to be advantageous in the context of reducing marine litter, compared to conventional bags.

dc.format.extent4775-4783
dc.format.mediumPrint-Electronic
dc.languageen
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherAmerican Chemical Society
dc.subjectPlastics
dc.subjectPolyethylene
dc.subjectSeawater
dc.subjectSoil
dc.titleEnvironmental Deterioration of Biodegradable, Oxo-biodegradable, Compostable, and Conventional Plastic Carrier Bags in the Sea, Soil, and Open-Air Over a 3-Year Period
dc.typejournal-article
dc.typeArticle
plymouth.author-urlhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31030509
plymouth.issue9
plymouth.volume53
plymouth.publisher-urlhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b06984
plymouth.publication-statusPublished
plymouth.journalEnvironmental Science and Technology
dc.identifier.doi10.1021/acs.est.8b06984
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Faculty of Science and Engineering
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Faculty of Science and Engineering/School of Biological and Marine Sciences
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/REF 2021 Researchers by UoA
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/REF 2021 Researchers by UoA/UoA07 Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Research Groups
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Research Groups/Marine Institute
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Users by role
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Users by role/Academics
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Users by role/Researchers in ResearchFish submission
dc.publisher.placeUnited States
dcterms.dateAccepted2019-04-03
dc.rights.embargodate2020-4-27
dc.identifier.eissn1520-5851
dc.rights.embargoperiodNot known
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1021/acs.est.8b06984
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://www.rioxx.net/licenses/all-rights-reserved
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2019-05-07
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review


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