Graphene Oxide-Based Targeting of Extracellular Cathepsin D and Cathepsin L As A Novel Anti-Metastatic Enzyme Cancer Therapy
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Overexpression and secretion of the enzymes cathepsin D (CathD) and cathepsin L (CathL) is associated with metastasis in several human cancers. As a superfamily, extracellularly, these proteins may act within the tumor microenvironment to drive cancer progression, proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Therefore, it is important to discover novel therapeutic treatment strategies to target CathD and CathL and potentially impede metastasis. Graphene oxide (GO) could form the basis of such a strategy by acting as an adsorbent for pro-metastatic enzymes. Here, we have conducted research into the potential of targeted anti-metastatic therapy using GO to adsorb these pro-tumorigenic enzymes. Binding of CathD/L to GO revealed that CathD/L were adsorbed onto the surface of GO through its cationic and hydrophilic residues. This work could provide a roadmap for the rational integration of CathD/L-targeting agents into clinical settings.
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