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dc.contributor.authorArnold, Ten
dc.contributor.authorMealey, Cen
dc.contributor.authorLeahey, Hen
dc.contributor.authorMiller, AWen
dc.contributor.authorHall-Spencer, JMen
dc.contributor.authorMilazzo, Men
dc.contributor.authorMaers, Ken
dc.date.accessioned2013-02-20T08:30:50Z
dc.date.available2013-02-20T08:30:50Z
dc.date.issued2012en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10026.1/1319
dc.description.abstract

Rising atmospheric CO(2) often triggers the production of plant phenolics, including many that serve as herbivore deterrents, digestion reducers, antimicrobials, or ultraviolet sunscreens. Such responses are predicted by popular models of plant defense, especially resource availability models which link carbon availability to phenolic biosynthesis. CO(2) availability is also increasing in the oceans, where anthropogenic emissions cause ocean acidification, decreasing seawater pH and shifting the carbonate system towards further CO(2) enrichment. Such conditions tend to increase seagrass productivity but may also increase rates of grazing on these marine plants. Here we show that high CO(2) / low pH conditions of OA decrease, rather than increase, concentrations of phenolic protective substances in seagrasses and eurysaline marine plants. We observed a loss of simple and polymeric phenolics in the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa near a volcanic CO(2) vent on the Island of Vulcano, Italy, where pH values decreased from 8.1 to 7.3 and pCO(2) concentrations increased ten-fold. We observed similar responses in two estuarine species, Ruppia maritima and Potamogeton perfoliatus, in in situ Free-Ocean-Carbon-Enrichment experiments conducted in tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay, USA. These responses are strikingly different than those exhibited by terrestrial plants. The loss of phenolic substances may explain the higher-than-usual rates of grazing observed near undersea CO(2) vents and suggests that ocean acidification may alter coastal carbon fluxes by affecting rates of decomposition, grazing, and disease. Our observations temper recent predictions that seagrasses would necessarily be "winners" in a high CO(2) world.

en
dc.format.extente35107 - ?en
dc.languageengen
dc.language.isoengen
dc.subjectAlismatalesen
dc.subjectAnalysis of Varianceen
dc.subjectCarbon Dioxideen
dc.subjectCarbonatesen
dc.subjectHydrogen-Ion Concentrationen
dc.subjectHydrothermal Ventsen
dc.subjectItalyen
dc.subjectMarylanden
dc.subjectOceans and Seasen
dc.subjectPhenolsen
dc.subjectPotamogetonaceaeen
dc.subjectSeawateren
dc.subjectStatistics, Nonparametricen
dc.titleOcean acidification and the loss of phenolic substances in marine plants.en
dc.typeJournal Article
plymouth.author-urlhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22558120en
plymouth.issue4en
plymouth.volume7en
plymouth.publication-statusPublisheden
plymouth.journalPLoS Oneen
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0035107en
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/00 Groups by role
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/00 Groups by role/Academics
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Faculty of Science and Engineering
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Faculty of Science and Engineering/School of Biological and Marine Sciences
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/PRIMaRE Publications
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/REF 2021 Researchers by UoA
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/REF 2021 Researchers by UoA/UoA07 Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Research Groups
plymouth.organisational-group/Plymouth/Research Groups/Marine Institute
dc.publisher.placeUnited Statesen
dcterms.dateAccepted2012-03-13en
dc.identifier.eissn1932-6203en
dc.rights.embargoperiodNot knownen
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1371/journal.pone.0035107en
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://www.rioxx.net/licenses/all-rights-reserveden
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2012en
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen


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