Relationship of Nocturnal Sleep Dysfunction and Pain Subtypes in Parkinson's Disease
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© 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society Background: Little research has been conducted regarding the relationship between sleep disorders and different pain types in Parkinson's disease (PD). Objective: To explore the influence of the various pain subtypes experienced by PD patients on sleep. Methods: Three hundred consecutive PD patients were assessed with the PD Sleep Scale-Version 2 (PDSS-2), King's PD Pain Scale (KPPS), King's PD Pain Questionnaire (KPPQ), Visual Analog Scales for Pain (VAS-Pain), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results: According to the PDSS-2, 99.3% of our sample suffered from at least one sleep issue. Those who reported experiencing any modality of pain suffered significantly more from sleep disorders than those who did not (all, P < 0.003). The PDSS-2 showed moderate-to-high correlations with the KPPS (rS = 0.57), KPPQ (0.57), and VAS-Pain (0.35). When PDSS-2 items 10 to 12 (pain-related) were excluded, the correlation values decreased to 0.50, 0.51, and 0.28, respectively, while these items showed moderate-to-high correlations with KPPS (0.56), KPPQ (0.54), and VAS-Pain (0.42). Among the variables analyzed, multiple linear regression models suggested that KPPS and KPPQ were the most relevant predictors of sleep disorders (as per the PDSS-2), although following exclusion of PDSS-2 pain items, depression was the relevant predictor. Depression and anxiety were the most relevant predictors in the analysis involving the VAS-Pain. Regression analysis, considering only the KPPS domains, showed that nocturnal and musculoskeletal pains were the best predictors of overall nocturnal sleep disorder. Conclusions: Pain showed a moderate association with nocturnal sleep dysfunction in PD. Some pain subtypes had a greater effect on sleep than others.
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