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Aquatic hazard assessment of a commercial sample of naphthenic acids.
This paper presents chemical composition and aquatic toxicity characteristics of a commercial sample of naphthenic acids (NAs). Naphthenic acids are derived from the refining of petroleum middle distillates and can contribute ...
Elemental and spectroscopic characterization of fractions of an acidic extract of oil sands process water.
'Naphthenic acids' (NAs) in petroleum produced water and oil sands process water (OSPW), have been implicated in toxicological effects. However, many are not well characterized. A method for fractionation of NAs of an OSPW ...
Bicyclic naphthenic acids in oil sands process water: identification by comprehensive multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
Although bicyclic acids have been reported to be the major naphthenic acids in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) and a well-accepted screening assay indicated that some bicyclics were the most acutely toxic acids ...