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Heat-killed probiotic bacteria differentially regulate colonic epithelial cell production of human β-defensin-2: dependence on inflammatory cytokines.
The inducible antimicrobial peptide human β-defensin-2 (hBD-2) stimulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and bacterial products is essential to antipathogen responses of gut epithelial cells. Commensal and probiotic bacteria ...
Probiotic bacterial strains differentially modulate macrophage cytokine production in a strain-dependent and cell subset-specific manner.
Gut mucosal macrophages play a pivotal role in driving mucosal immune responses, resulting in either activation of inflammatory immune responses to pathogenic challenge or tolerance to beneficial luminal contents such as ...