On Lowering the Error Floor of Short-to-Medium Block Length Irregular Low Density Parity Check Codes
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Gallager proposed and developed low density parity check (LDPC) codes in the early 1960s. LDPC codes were rediscovered in the early 1990s and shown to be capacity approaching over the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. Subsequently, density evolution (DE) optimized symbol node degree distributions were used to significantly improve the decoding performance of short to medium length irregular LDPC codes. Currently, the short to medium length LDPC codes with the lowest error floor are DE optimized irregular LDPC codes constructed using progressive edge growth (PEG) algorithm modifications which are designed to increase the approximate cycle extrinsic message degrees (ACE) in the LDPC code graphs constructed. The aim of the present work is to find efficient means to improve on the error floor performance published for short to medium length irregular LDPC codes over AWGN channels in the literature. An efficient algorithm for determining the girth and ACE distributions in short to medium length LDPC code Tanner graphs has been proposed. A cyclic PEG (CPEG) algorithm which uses an edge connections sequence that results in LDPC codes with improved girth and ACE distributions is presented. LDPC codes with DE optimized/’good’ degree distributions which have larger minimum distances and stopping distances than previously published for LDPC codes of similar length and rate have been found. It is shown that increasing the minimum distance of LDPC codes lowers their error floor performance over AWGN channels; however, there are threshold minimum distances values above which there is no further lowering of the error floor performance. A minimum local girth (edge skipping) (MLG (ES)) PEG algorithm is presented; the algorithm controls the minimum local girth (global girth) connected in the Tanner graphs of LDPC codes constructed by forfeiting some edge connections. A technique for constructing optimal low correlated edge density (OED) LDPC codes based on modified DE optimized symbol node degree distributions and the MLG (ES) PEG algorithm modification is presented. OED rate-½ (n, k)=(512, 256) LDPC codes have been shown to have lower error floor over the AWGN channel than previously published for LDPC codes of similar length and rate. Similarly, consequent to an improved symbol node degree distribution, rate ½ (n, k)=(1024, 512) LDPC codes have been shown to have lower error floor over the AWGN channel than previously published for LDPC codes of similar length and rate. An improved BP/SPA (IBP/SPA) decoder, obtained by making two simple modifications to the standard BP/SPA decoder, has been shown to result in an unprecedented generalized improvement in the performance of short to medium length irregular LDPC codes under iterative message passing decoding. The superiority of the Slepian Wolf distributed source coding model over other distributed source coding models based on LDPC codes has been shown.
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