Effectiveness of and User Experience With Web-Based Interventions in Increasing Physical Activity Levels in People With Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review.
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Background: Supporting people with multiple sclerosis (MS) to achieve and maintain recommended levels of physical activity is important but challenging. Web-based interventions are increasingly being used to deliver targeted exercise programs and promote physical activity. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to systematically review current evidence regarding the effectiveness and user experience of web-based interventions in increasing physical activity in people with MS. Data Sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, PEDro, PsychInfo, Web of Sciences, The Cochrane Library, and gray literature were searched from 1990 to September 2016. Study Selection: English language articles reporting the use of web-based interventions to increase physical activity in adults with MS were included. Eligible quantitative studies were of any design and reported a measure of physical activity. Qualitative studies exploring users' experiences in any context were included. Of the 881 articles identified, 9 met the inclusion criteria. Data Extraction: Two reviewers independently assessed methodological quality and extracted data using standardized critical appraisal and data extraction tools from the Joanna Briggs Institute Meta Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStARI). Data Synthesis: Meta-analysis of self-reported physical activity questionnaire data from 4 studies demonstrated a standardized mean difference of 0.67 (95% CI = 0.43-0.92), indicating a positive effect in favor of the web-based interventions. Narrative review of accelerometry data from 3 studies indicated increases in objectively measured physical activity. No qualitative studies met the inclusion criteria. Limitations: In the 9 included articles, only 2 different interventions (used with people who were ambulant) were reported. Conclusions: Web-based interventions had a short-term positive effect on self-reported physical activity in people who had MS and were ambulant. Evidence is not currently available to support or refute their use in the long-term or with people who are not ambulant.
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